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SOLID STATE STABILISER


#1

[6240]
solid state stabiliser

abstract


the solid state stabiliser is an electronic device intended to provide a stable 230 v- 50 hz output. the main purpose is to provide a constant voltage having a constant frequency. the input is taken from a common power supply of 230 v-50 hz. the obtained voltage is converted to higher frequency and stepped up using a small ferrite core transformer. it is then converted to a lower frequency and stabilized to get the required regulated output voltage.

introduction

the supply voltage we get is strongly argued to be 230v, 50hz. but actually it is not so. the voltage fluctuates drastically. the frequency also undergoes fluctuations. the existing stabilizers regulate only voltage. most of the electrical appliances are designed to work at the above mentioned standard values of voltage and frequency. not only the variations in voltage but also that of frequency may affect the performance of these devices. so a device is to be developed, that regulates both voltage and frequency. also, the conventional stabilizers use iron core transformers, they are bulky, they also produces eddy current losses and hysteresis losses. to overcome this iron core can be replaced by ferrite core. for this incoming frequency should be converted to high frequency. so, the size of the whole device can be reduced.
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#2
circuit diagram and components
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#3

The main characteristics of the solid state voltage stabilizer are:

1. Wide range of voltage variation from 120 V to 280 V
2. Only two low voltage and high voltage settings are required
3. Stabilized output of 220V
4. Compact size
5. Silent operation and absence of relay vibration sound
6. Bar Graph LED Voltage Indicator
7. Low / High Voltage and Cut Protection Indicator

The block diagram of a solid state voltage stabilizer is shown in Fig. 1.

[Image: B3A_solid-state-voltage-stabiliser.jpg]

The circuit diagram comprises four following sections:

1. Analog voltage to digital step changer
2. Isolated solid state power relay
3. Controlling the power supply
4. Network Transformer

[Image: CZ8_fig-2-_-circuit-of-voltage-_-jan-_-efy.png]

[Image: E95_table.png]

Analog voltage to the digital step changer:The circuit diagram of a solid state voltage stabilizer is shown in Fig. 2. The heart of the stabilizer is IC1 (LM3914) bar display controller. It is used as an LED type bar graph voltmeter with lower voltage and higher voltage settings through the VR1 and VR2 presets. IC1 detects the mains voltage. The difference between the lowest voltage and the upper voltage is divided into 10 steps. each LED indicates a step or voltage level and turns on depending on the voltage level received.

All 10 outputs of IC1 that are used to turn on the LEDs are also fed as inputs to the dual / demultiplexer decoder CD4556. CD4556 is used to convert the analog voltage into digital steps to ensure that, at any given time, only one voltage input from the network transformer obtains the input voltage of the network. In all conditions only one step can be active according to the analog input voltage.

Assume the first condition when the mains voltage is lower than the lower setting value. All output pins (1, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10) of IC1 will be high. IC3 (A) will be deactivated and no step will be selected (meaning that the low voltage 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10) of IC1 will be high. IC3 (A) will be disabled and no step will be selected (means low cut-off voltage).

As the mains voltage increases to more than the lower setting value, the LED1 of the bar graph voltmeter shines when pin1 of IC1 is low and all other outputs are high. In this condition IC2 (A) is enabled because the input E (pin 1) is low. Since the inputs A0 and A1 of IC2 (A) are high, the output Q3 goes down. This is step 1 of the charger step.

When the voltage increases, the input A0 of IC2 (A) goes down and its output Q2 also goes down. This is step 2 of the step changer.

Both outputs are combined with 1N4148 diodes and are given to the IC7 internal LED cathode plug (MOC3011). As the internal LED of the IC7 illuminates, TRIAC1 conducts and supplies the AC network to the tare 'A' of the network transformer X2.

When the voltage increases, both inputs A0 and A1 of IC2 (A) are lowered, while their two outputs are raised and TRIAC1 is switched off. Input A1 and output Q2 of IC2 (A) generate the enable input E for IC2 (B) with the help of the adjustment and reset input jacks (S and R) of the IC5 (A) flip-flop (CD4013 ). Pin 1 of IC5 (A) provides low signal to enable input E of IC2 (B) and output Q3 of IC2 (B) low. This is step 3 of the step changer. In the same way, other conditions work in the same way (see Table).

[Image: EZ8_11-_-efy.png]

The number of sockets for the X2 transformer and the number of solid state relays to use depend on the voltage range to be covered. If the minimum voltage can drop to 100 volts and the maximum could rise to 300 volts, we need to cover the 200 volt deviation. This can be handled either through ten shots with 20V difference or only five shots with 40V difference between each.

Solid state power relay isolated: The isolated solid state power relay comprises an MOC3011 opto-isolatortriac controller, a rectifier bridge (5A) and a BT136 triac. The MOC3011 triac opto-isolator controller is used to control the steps and connect the AC mains power supply to the correct socket of the X2 mains transformer through a solid-state relay. The capacity of the solid state relay depends on both the traic components and the bridge rectifier. Here triac BT136 and 5A bridge rectifier are used for 1kW load. Triac BT139 with bridge rectifier 10A can be used for a solid state relay of more than 1 kVA and less than 3 kVA. You can use up to 3 kVA solid state voltage stabilizer with 3 kVA transformer.
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