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The term Switchgear, used in association with the electric power system, or grid, refers to the combination of electrical disconnects, fuses and/or circuit breakers used to isolate electrical equipment. High voltage Switchgear was invented in 19th century for operating motors and electrical machines. But with the advancement in technology, it has been improved over time to be used with high voltage. Earlier, the filling material used was air or vacuum only. Switchgear can be classified:
By the current rating.
By voltage class:
o Low voltage (less than 1,000 volts AC)
o Medium voltage (1,000 35,000 volts AC)
o High voltage (more than 35,000 volts AC)
By insulating medium:
o Air
o Gas (SF6 or mixtures)
o Oil
o Vacuum
Nowadays, SF6 filled equipment, known as Gas Insulated Switchgear are generally used as circuit breaker to isolate electrical equipment. It is widely employed as a protection element in industries like BHEL, TATA, etc.

Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is important because it is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply. Today, oil-filled equipment has largely been replaced by air-blast, vacuum, or SF6 equipment, allowing large currents and power levels to be safely controlled by automatic equipment incorporating digital controls, metering and communications.
gas insulated switchgear for medium voltage sustation

The Gas Insulated High Voltage Switch-gear (GIS) is a compact metal encapsulation device consisting of high voltage components such as circuit breakers and disconnectors, which can be operated safely in confined spaces. GIS are used in limited spaces, for example extensions, in city buildings, roofs, marine platforms, industrial plants and hydroelectric power stations. ABB has always been and continues to drive innovation in GIS technology in terms of grades, operations, switching technology, intelligent control and monitoring, and compactness. As a result, ABB's GIS offers exceptional reliability, operational safety and environmental compatibility. It provides a full range of products for all classifications and applications from 72.5 kV to 1200 kV that match current and future requirements for modern switching devices.
It is very necessary to establish an electrical substation in the load center. Since then, the establishment of a substation in the cargo center is quite economical and profitable in many respects. As it reduces the length of the feeders and because of short-length feeders, the quality of the voltage regulation improves. But the main obstacle to establishing a substation in the load center is space. Generally the main load center of any place is located in a very congested place where, enough ground to establish the conventional electrical substation is very little available.

[Image: gis.jpg]

This problem can be solved using gas-insulated switch technology. In this type of switchgear, all necessary components of switchgear can be mounted in a very limited space. SIG is a kind of closed metal cabinet. This means that all equipment in the electrical panel is enclosed by a gas-tight metal housing and SF6 gas is used as an insulation between the active parts of the equipment and the grounded metal enclosure. This type of switchgear, means and gas switchgear is available from 12 KV systems up to 800 KV. To establish an electrical substation in a very limited place, this type of electrical switchgear isolated with SF6 plays the main role.

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